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One area within agriculture with tremendous potential to influence early childhood nutrition is the dairy sector. Dairy products have a range of nutritional and physical characteristics that make them an almost ideal complementary food. Undernourished children in poor countries are often deficient in foods rich in high-quality proteins comprised of essential amino acids that constitute the building blocks for linear growth and cognitive development (Semba, 2016). Dairy has a higher digestibility-corrected amino acid score than any other food (1.21) and is particularly efficacious at closing amino acid gaps in the monotonous diets prevalent in Africa and Asia (FAO, 2013), and in poorer populations more exposed to infections (Semba, 2016). Dairy is unique in stimulating plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a growth hormone that acts to increase the uptake of amino acids (FAO, 2013). Dairy is also dense in calories, fat, and various micronutrients (vitamin A and B12), as well as being exceptionally rich in calcium (which contributes to bone length and strength), potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus (Dror and Allen, 2014). Finally, the sheer density of multiple macro- and micronutrients in dairy products—as well as their taste, and familiar texture and consistency—makes them almost ideal for infants and young children with small stomachs incapable of consuming large quantities of nutrient-sparse foods so common in diets of poorer households.
Our study synthesized data from 176 papers after screening and critically reviewing information from 12 electronic databases that produced a total of 34,402 unique references and grey literature sources published between 1991 and the end of 2020. Based on the systematic analysis of the papers, we found that nearly two out of every five (42%) of the papers reviewed showed that livestock production is associated with improved height-for-age Z score (indicator of chronic malnutrition). Our analysis also showed that weight-for-length/height Z score (an indicator of acute malnutrition) improved through livestock production. Similarly, close to a third (30.7%) of the papers reviewed showed that weight-for-age Z scores (a direct indicator of both chronic and acute malnutrition) of children improved through livestock production of families. Livestock production has also showed a positive or neutral relationship with women’s nutritional status in almost all the reported papers. However, close to four-fifths (79.5%) of the papers reporting on infection and morbidity outcomes also indicated that livestock keeping is linked to a wide range of infectious disease outcomes, which are spread primarily through water, food, and insects.
We validated Food Recognition Assistance and Nudging Insights (FRANI), a mobile artificial intelligence (AI) dietary assessment application in adolescent females aged 12–18 y (n = 36) in Ghana, against weighed records (WR), and multipass 24-hour recalls (24HR).
Dietary intake was assessed during 3 nonconsecutive days using FRANI, WRs, and 24HRs. Equivalence of nutrient intake was tested using mixed-effect models adjusted for repeated measures, by comparing ratios (FRANI/WR and 24HR/WR) with equivalence margins at 10%, 15%, and 20% error bounds. Agreement between methods was assessed using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC).
Equivalence for FRANI and WR was determined at the 10% bound for energy intake, 15% for 5 nutrients (iron, zinc, folate, niacin, and vitamin B6), and 20% for protein, calcium, riboflavin, and thiamine intakes. Comparisons between 24HR and WR estimated equivalence at the 20% bound for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, thiamine, and vitamin A intakes. The CCCs by nutrient between FRANI and WR ranged between 0.30 and 0.68, which was similar for CCC between 24HR and WR (ranging between 0.38 and 0.67). Comparisons of food consumption episodes from FRANI and WR found 31% omission and 16% intrusion errors. Omission and intrusion errors were lower when comparing 24HR with WR (21% and 13%, respectively).
FRANI AI–assisted dietary assessment could accurately estimate nutrient intake in adolescent females compared with WR in urban Ghana. FRANI estimates were at least as accurate as those provided through 24HR. Further improvements in food recognition and portion estimation in FRANI could reduce errors and improve overall nutrient intake estimations.
Methodology: The nationally representative General Nutrition Survey of 2009–2010 (n = 8,225 households) was used to derive dietary patterns using principal component analysis (PCA) based on 18 food groups as input variables. Quintiles of the highest adherence (Q5) and lowest adherence (Q1) were generated based on the factor score of each dietary pattern. Nutrient adequacy and dietary diversity scores (DDS) were calculated to measure diet quality, and greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and blue water use (BWU) were selected as environmental impact indicators.
Results: Using PCA, three distinct dietary patterns were identified: an Omnivorous, Traditional, and Pescatarian pattern. Compared to the Traditional pattern, the Omnivorous and Pescatarian patterns (Q5s) were associated with a higher nutrient adequacy, with mean probability of adequacy of 0.51 in both patterns, compared to 0.45 in the Traditional pattern. However, environmental impacts in terms of GHGE and BWU per 2,000 kcal were considerably higher in the Omnivorous pattern (6.14 kg CO2-eq. and 0.15 m3/kg) compared to all other pattern’s Q5s. The GHGE was lowest in the Traditional pattern (4.18 kg CO2-eq.) and the Pescatarian pattern has the lowest BWU (0.12 m3/kg).
Conclusion: Despite that diet quality was slightly better in all three patterns compared to the average diet of the total population, environmental impact was also higher. Therefore, future research is needed to develop a more optimal diet that considers both diet quality and environmental impact to explore the trade-offs between diet quality and environmental impact.
Linear goal programming models were built for three scenarios (non-fasting, continuous fasting and intermittent fasting). Each model minimised a function of deviations from nutrient reference values for eleven nutrients (protein, Ca, Fe, Zn, folate, and the vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, and B12). The energy intake in optimised diets could only deviate 5 % from the current diet.
Five regions are included in the urban and rural areas of Ethiopia.
Two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) were collected from 494 Ethiopian women of reproductive age from November to December 2019.
Women’s mean energy intake was well above 2000 kcal across all socio-demographic subgroups. Compared to the current diet, the estimated intake of several food groups was considerably higher in the optimised modelled diets, that is, milk and dairy foods (396 v. 30 g/d), nuts and seeds (20 v. 1 g/d) and fruits (200 v. 7 g/d). Except for Ca and vitamin B12 intake in the continuous fasting diet, the proposed diets provide an adequate intake of the targeted micronutrients. The proposed diets had a maximum cost of 120 Ethiopian birrs ($3·5) per d, twice the current diet’s cost.
The modelled diets may be feasible for women of reproductive age as they are close to their current diets and fulfil their energy and nutrient demands. However, the costs may be a barrier to implementation.
A total of 217 E. turcicum isolates were recovered. Most of the isolates (47%) were recovered from the Ikenne samples while the least were obtained from Zaria. All isolates were morphologically characterized. A subset of 124 isolates was analyzed for virulence effector profiles using three primers: SIX13-like, SIX5-like, and Ecp6. Inter- and intra-location variations among isolates was found in sporulation, growth patterns, and presence of the effectors. Candidate effector genes that condition pathogenicity and virulence in E. turcicum were found but not all isolates expressed the three effectors.
Morphological and genetic variation among E. turcicum isolates was found within and across locations. The variability observed suggests that breeding for resistance to NCLB in Nigeria requires selection for quantitative resistance to sustain the breeding efforts.