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Poultry husbandry, WASH practices and child anthropometry in rural Burkina Faso
Gelli, Aulo; Headey, Derek D.; Becquey, Elodie; Ganaba, Rasmane; Huybregts, Lieven; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye; Santacroce, Marco; Verhoef, Hans. Article in press

How do fruit and vegetable markets operate in rural India? A qualitative study of the impact of supply and demand on nutrition security
Kehoe, Sarah H.; Dhurde, Varsha; Bhaise, Shilpa; Kale, Rashmi; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Gelli, Aulo. Article in press

The cost of improving nutritional outcomes through food‐assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programs in Burundi and Guatemala
Heckert, Jessica; Leroy, Jef L.; Olney, Deanna K.; Ritcher, Susan; Iruhiriye, Elyse; Ruel, Marie T.. Article in press

A multisectoral food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition program targeted to women and children in the first 1000 days increases attainment of language and motor milestones among young Burundian children
Olney, Deanna K.; Leroy, Jef L.; Bliznashka, Lilia; Ruel, Marie T.. Article in press

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Child development is affected by multiple factors throughout pregnancy and childhood. Multisectoral programs addressing these factors may improve children's development.
Changes in socio-economic patterns of energy consumption and insufficient energy intake across India from 1993–94 to 2011–12
Perkins, Jessica M.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Joe, William; Lee, Hwa-Young; Heo, Jongho
. Article in press

Using structural equation modelling to understand the contributors to anemia among young Burkinabe children
Bliznashka, Lilia; Arsenault, Joanne E.; Becquey, Elodie; Ruel, Marie T.; Olney, Deanna K.. Article in press

Program impact pathway analysis reveals implementation challenges that limited the incentive value of conditional cash transfers aimed at improving maternal and child health care use in Mali
Le Port, Agnès; Zongrone, Amanda; Sessou, Eric; Diatta, Ampa Dogui; Koulidiati, Jean-Louis; Ruel, Marie T.. Article in press

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The program “Santé Nutritionnelle à Assise Communautaire à Kayes” (SNACK) in Mali aimed to improve child linear growth through a set of interventions targeted to mothers and children during pregnancy and up to the child's second birthday. Distributions of cash to mothers and/or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) to children 6–23 months of age were added to SNACK to increase attendance at community health centers (CHCs).
PROCOMIDA, a food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition program, contributes to postpartum weight retention in Guatemala: A cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial
Leroy, Jef L.; Olney, Deanna K.; Ruel, Marie T.. Article in press

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Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to reduce household food insecurity and maternal and child undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. These programs, however, may unintentionally lead to excessive energy intake and unhealthy weight gain, especially in food-secure populations.
Information diffusion and social norms are associated with infant and young child feeding practices in Bangladesh
Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Frongillo, Edward A.; Kim, Sunny S.; Zongrone, Amanda; Jilani, Amir Hamza; Tran, Lan Mai; Sanghvi, Tina; Menon, Purnima. Article in press

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Interaction within mothers’ social networks can theoretically diffuse messages from interventions and campaigns into norms and practices for infant and young child feeding (IYCF).
Can women's self‐help groups improve access to information, decision‐making, and agricultural practices? The Indian case
Raghunathan, Kalyani; Kannan, Samyuktha; Quisumbing, Agnes R.. Article in press

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Effective agricultural extension is key to improving productivity, increasing farmers’ access to information, and promoting more diverse sets of crops and improved methods of cultivation. In India, however, the coverage of agricultural extension workers and the relevance of extension advice is poor. We investigate whether a women's self‐help group (SHG) platform could be an effective way of improving access to information, women's empowerment in agriculture, agricultural practices, and production diversity. We use cross‐sectional data on close to 1,000 women from five states in India and employ nearest‐neighbor matching models to match SHG and non‐SHG women along a range of observed characteristics. We find that participation in an SHG increases women's access to information and their participation in some agricultural decisions, but has limited impact on agricultural practices or outcomes, possibly due to financial constraints, social norms, and women's domestic responsibilities. SHGs need to go beyond provision of information to changing the dynamics around women's participation in agriculture to effectively translate knowledge into practice.
Gender effects of agricultural cropping work and nutrition status in Tanzania
Komatsu, Hitomi; Malapit, Hazel J.; Balagamwala, Mysbah. Article in press

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Although agriculture is an important source of food and income for food expenditures, women’s involvement in the agricultural cropping production process could increase their work load and reduce their BMI. Using three waves of the Tanzania National Panel Survey, we investigate the extent to which time spent in agricultural crop production affects women and men’s nutritional status among non-overweight individuals (age 20–65). We also test whether the impact of agricultural cropping work on nutritional status is modified by access to agricultural equipment, and whether gender differences exist. The study finds that time spent in agricultural cropping work is negatively associated with BMI for non-overweight individuals, albeit of small magnitude, and this finding is consistent across different crop production processes. This suggests that agricultural interventions should not ignore the implications of increasing work intensities on nutrition. While increased agricultural production could improve nutritional status by increasing agricultural income and food, the gains in nutritional status could be offset by an increase in work effort of doing agricultural work. Our results suggest that it is possible that access to equipment reduced effort for one production activity, but increased work for other activities in the production process, such as in harvesting. Furthermore, we find that the BMI of women in households with a hand powered sprayer is positively related to time spent in weeding, fertilizing, and non-harvest activities, while it is negatively correlated for men. It is possible that access to a hand powered sprayer may have helped reduce women’s work, for example, in weeding, while this was not the case for men’s work such as in ridging and fertilizing. Further disaggregation of agricultural activities in the dataset would have been helpful to provide more insights on the gender roles.
Different cooking styles enhance antioxidant properties and carotenoids of biofortified pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch) genotypes
Moreira, Lara de Azevedo Sarmet; Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; Cardoso, Flávio da Silva e Souza Neves; Ortiz, Gisela Maria Dellamora; Finco, Fernanda Dias Bartolomeu Abadio; Carvalho, José Luiz Viana de . Article in press

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Biofortification is an important technique where the nutritional quality of food crops is enriched through the increase of nutrient content. Provitamin A deficiency is still a public health concern mainly in developing countries. Since beta-carotene is a vitamin A precursor, the increase of this compound in foods through biofortification is a manner to reach people under hidden hunger condition. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different cooking styles on carotenoids content and antioxidant activity of two different genotypes of biofortified Cucurbita moschata. In the present study, biofortified pumpkins submitted to different cooking conditions were assessed for antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid systems and have polyphenols and carotenoids content compared. The cooking style affected the antioxidant activity. Pumpkins from genotype 1 showed high levels of carotenoids, α-carotene and all-E-β-carotene compared to samples from genotype 2. There was an increase of all carotenoids in both cooked pumpkins, and steam cooking showed the highest retention percentages. Steam cooking presented a higher percentage of carotenoid retention. Pumpkin consumption in developing countries, especially in the Northeast Brazil may be promoted to combat vitamin A deficiency.
Willingness to pay of Nigerian poultry producers and feed millers for aflatoxin‐safe maize
Johnson, Andrew M.; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Ayedun, Bamikole; Fulton, Joan R.; Widmar, Nicole J. Olynk; Adebowale, Akande; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit. Article in press

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Dietary aflatoxin exposure is a widespread problem in the developing world and causes severe negative health consequences to humans and livestock animals. A new biological control product, called Aflasafe, has been introduced in Nigeria to mitigate aflatoxin contamination of maize in the field and in storage. No known prior work has estimated how much African agribusinesses using maize for animal feed will pay for aflatoxin‐safe maize. This study measured the levels of Aflasafe awareness, surveyed current aflatoxin management practices, and estimated, using choice experiments, willingness to pay (WTP) for aflatoxin‐safe maize by Nigerian poultry producers and feed millers. Data was gathered from 272 orally administered surveys, which included discrete choice experiments examining maize purchasing decisions. Results suggest that the proportion of enterprises that were aware of aflatoxin was found to vary across states. Two latent classes of Nigerian poultry producers and feed millers were identified that were willing to pay average premiums of 4.9% and 30.9%, respectively for maize with 10 parts per billion (ppb) aflatoxin concentration relative to maize with 20 ppb aflatoxin concentration. Both latent classes were, on average, willing to pay larger premiums for maize with 4 ppb aflatoxin concentration. There was evidence that latent class membership, and hence WTP, varied based on awareness of aflatoxin and across geographies.
The relative caloric prices of healthy and unhealthy foods differ systematically across income levels and continents
Headey, Derek D.; Alderman, Harold. Article in Press

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Relative prices of healthy/unhealthy foods have been implicated in the obesity epidemic, but never extensively quantified across countries or empirically linked to undernutrition.
Women’s empowerment in agriculture: Lessons from qualitative research
Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Rubin, Deborah; Elias, Marlène; Mulema, Annet Abenakyo; Myers, Emily. Washington, DC 2019

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There is growing recognition of the importance of women’s empowerment in its own right and for a range of development outcomes, but less understanding of what empowerment means to rural women and men. The challenge of measuring empowerment, particularly across cultures and contexts, is also garnering attention. This paper synthesizes qualitative research conducted conjointly with quantitative surveys, working with eight agricultural development projects in eight countries, to develop a project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI). The qualitative research sought to identify emic meanings of “empowerment,” validate the domains and indicators of the quantitative index, provide greater understanding of the context of each project and of strategies for facilitating empowerment, and test a methodology for integrating emic perspectives of empowerment with standardized etic measures that allow for comparability across contexts.
Development of the project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI)
Malapit, Hazel J.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Seymour, Gregory; Martinez, Elena M.; Heckert, Jessica; Rubin, Deborah; Vaz, Ana; Yount, Kathryn M.. Washington, DC 2019

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In this paper, the authors describe the adaptation and validation of a project-level WEAI (or pro-WEAI) that agricultural development projects can use to identify key areas of women’s (and men’s) disempowerment, design appropriate strategies to address identified deficiencies, and monitor project outcomes related to women’s empowerment. The 12 pro-WEAI indicators are mapped to three domains: intrinsic agency (power within), instrumental agency (power to), and collective agency (power with). A gender parity index compares the empowerment scores of men and women in the same household. The authors describe the development of pro-WEAI, including: (1) pro-WEAI’s distinctiveness from other versions of the WEAI; (2) the process of piloting pro-WEAI in 13 agricultural development projects during the Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project, phase 2 (GAAP2); (3) analysis of quantitative data from the GAAP2 projects, including intrahousehold patterns of empowerment; and (4) a summary of the findings from the qualitative work exploring concepts of women’s empowerment in the project sites. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned from pro-WEAI and possibilities for further development of empowerment metrics.
Accelerating the end of hunger and malnutrition: A global event: Synopsis
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington, DC 2019

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The world faces a fast-approaching due date: 2030 is the year by which 193 countries have committed themselves to ending hunger and malnutrition as part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This commitment is supported by the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016–2025), designed to promote the achievement of SDG2—a necessary condition for most other SDGs—and the Compact2025 initiative, which was established to use data, research-based evidence, best practices, and South-South learning to accelerate progress in ending hunger and malnutrition. These efforts, however, represent only the first step along the path toward achieving a world free of hunger and malnutrition. Success depends on following up commitments with concerted actions that produce measurable and sustainable results. So far, the evidence shows that the world is moving far too slowly along this path. Despite the political will expressed in the SDGs, hunger persists, and malnutrition is climbing. These realities—and the conviction that the world could move faster—were the impetus and the backdrop for an international three-day conference—organized by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)—in Bangkok in November 2018. At the conference, more than 600 distinguished decisionmakers, practitioners, and other stakeholders—from across governments, NGOs, civil society, research organizations, and the private sector— gathered to discuss how to speed up progress. In a wide-ranging set of keynote addresses, panel discussions, and side events, they shared evidence and lessons learned from around the world on transforming food systems to reduce hunger and malnutrition. They explored opportunities for scaling up successful actions and innovations that can disrupt business-as-usual to build momentum and accelerate progress.
IFPRI in Africa
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington, DC 2019

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IFPRI IN AFRICA: For over 40 years, IFPRI has worked with partners in Africa at the country, regional, and continental levels to provide cuttingedge, policy-relevant research on food and nutrition security for policy makers, development partners, and stakeholders. Sharing this research and engaging through capacity building and dialogue informs effective policies, programs, and investments to help ensure that all people have access to safe, sufficient, nutritious, and sustainably grown food.