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Poultry husbandry, WASH practices and child anthropometry in rural Burkina Faso
Gelli, Aulo; Headey, Derek D.; Becquey, Elodie; Ganaba, Rasmane; Huybregts, Lieven; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye; Santacroce, Marco; Verhoef, Hans. Article in press

The cost of improving nutritional outcomes through food‐assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programs in Burundi and Guatemala
Heckert, Jessica; Leroy, Jef L.; Olney, Deanna K.; Ritcher, Susan; Iruhiriye, Elyse; Ruel, Marie T.. Article in press

Changes in socio-economic patterns of energy consumption and insufficient energy intake across India from 1993–94 to 2011–12
Perkins, Jessica M.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Joe, William; Lee, Hwa-Young; Heo, Jongho
. Article in press

Using structural equation modelling to understand the contributors to anemia among young Burkinabe children
Bliznashka, Lilia; Arsenault, Joanne E.; Becquey, Elodie; Ruel, Marie T.; Olney, Deanna K.. Article in press

PROCOMIDA, a food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition program, contributes to postpartum weight retention in Guatemala: A cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial
Leroy, Jef L.; Olney, Deanna K.; Ruel, Marie T.. Article in press

Abstract | View

Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to reduce household food insecurity and maternal and child undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. These programs, however, may unintentionally lead to excessive energy intake and unhealthy weight gain, especially in food-secure populations.
Information diffusion and social norms are associated with infant and young child feeding practices in Bangladesh
Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Frongillo, Edward A.; Kim, Sunny S.; Zongrone, Amanda; Jilani, Amir Hamza; Tran, Lan Mai; Sanghvi, Tina; Menon, Purnima. Article in press

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Interaction within mothers’ social networks can theoretically diffuse messages from interventions and campaigns into norms and practices for infant and young child feeding (IYCF).
Gender effects of agricultural cropping work and nutrition status in Tanzania
Komatsu, Hitomi; Malapit, Hazel J.; Balagamwala, Mysbah. Article in press

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Although agriculture is an important source of food and income for food expenditures, women’s involvement in the agricultural cropping production process could increase their work load and reduce their BMI. Using three waves of the Tanzania National Panel Survey, we investigate the extent to which time spent in agricultural crop production affects women and men’s nutritional status among non-overweight individuals (age 20–65). We also test whether the impact of agricultural cropping work on nutritional status is modified by access to agricultural equipment, and whether gender differences exist. The study finds that time spent in agricultural cropping work is negatively associated with BMI for non-overweight individuals, albeit of small magnitude, and this finding is consistent across different crop production processes. This suggests that agricultural interventions should not ignore the implications of increasing work intensities on nutrition. While increased agricultural production could improve nutritional status by increasing agricultural income and food, the gains in nutritional status could be offset by an increase in work effort of doing agricultural work. Our results suggest that it is possible that access to equipment reduced effort for one production activity, but increased work for other activities in the production process, such as in harvesting. Furthermore, we find that the BMI of women in households with a hand powered sprayer is positively related to time spent in weeding, fertilizing, and non-harvest activities, while it is negatively correlated for men. It is possible that access to a hand powered sprayer may have helped reduce women’s work, for example, in weeding, while this was not the case for men’s work such as in ridging and fertilizing. Further disaggregation of agricultural activities in the dataset would have been helpful to provide more insights on the gender roles.
Proceedings of the workshop ‘Biofortified food - Working together to get more nutritious food to the table in India’
Mitra-Ganguli, Tora; Boyd, Katrina; Uchitelle-Pierce, Benjamin; Walton, Jenny. Article in press

Abstract | View

HarvestPlus is the global leader in biofortification and has been leading biofortification efforts in India for nearly a decade. A workshop hosted by HarvestPlus was held in April 2019 in New Delhi to discuss ways to increase the scale, reach and impact of naturally nutritious (biofortified) foods in India by working in partnership with the food industry. This paper summarizes the output of that 2-day workshop. Harvest Plus is a not-for-profit organization that works with its partners to tackle hidden hunger and malnutrition. It leads the global effort to develop biofortified staple crops, explore their acceptability, efficacy and effectiveness, and scale up their availability to rural and urban populations who may not have access to diverse diet, fortified foods or supplements. Scaling the reach and impact of biofortified food through foods systems is a key strategy for HarvestPlus. In this regard, HarvestPlus has conducted research into the barriers for scale-up and co-created solutions to overcoming those barriers through partnership with the food industry. During this workshop, it emerged that there is significant demand from the food industry who see value in biofortification to both their business and the health of their customers and the country. Small working groups explored specific opportunities around supply chains, food products and composition, and consumers & markets. Several common themes emerged from the deliberations. All three groups identified lack of awareness as a major barrier to scale. More data on the health and nutrition impacts, as well as consumer and market research, is critically needed to build the food industry’s understanding of biofortified foods. Ensuring supply chain integrity, meeting manufacturing product standards, and developing strategic messaging for consumers were also mentioned repeatedly. Ending hidden hunger and managing a profitable food business can be done simultaneously and sustainably. By addressing the barriers to embedding biofortification into the food system, HarvestPlus aims to increase the access that families and communities have to nutritious seeds and foods.
A community-based early childhood development center platform promoting diversified diets and food production increases the mean probability of adequacy of intake of preschoolers in Malawi: A cluster randomized trial
Gelli, Aulo; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Santacroce, Marco; Twalibu, Aisha; Margolies, Amy; Katundu, Mangani. Article in press

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Background: Young children in Malawi consume low-quality diets lacking micronutrients critical for their development.
Objective: To evaluate the impact of an agriculture and nutrition behavior change communication (BCC) intervention implemented through community-based childcare centers on the nutrient adequacy of diets of children living in food-insecure settings in Malawi.
A double edged sword? Improvements in economic conditions over a decade in India led to declines in undernutrition as well as increases in overweight among adolescents and women
Young, Melissa; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Avula, Rasmi; Menon, Purnima. Article in press

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This study examined the national and state trends for BMI and identified the determinants of underweight and overweight/obesity among adolescent girls and women.
Multisectoral community development in Nepal has greater effects on child growth and diet than nutrition education alone
Miller, Laurie C.; Neupane, Sumanta; Joshi, Neena; Lohani, Mahendra; Rogers, Beatrice L.; Neupane, Shailes
. Article in press

Lipid-based nutrient supplements and all-cause mortality in children 6–24 months of age: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Stewart, Christine P.; Wessells, K. Ryan; Arnold, Charles D.; Huybregts, Lieven; Ashorn, Per; Becquey, Elodie. Oxford Article in press

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Background: Undernutrition is associated with an elevated risk of mortality among children in low- and middle-income countries. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) have been evaluated as a method to prevent undernutrition and improve infant development, but the effects on mortality are unknown.
Affordability of the EAT–Lancet reference diet: A global analysis
Hirvonen, Kalle; Bai, Yan; Headey, Derek D.; Masters, William A.. Article in press

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The EAT–Lancet Commission drew on all available nutritional and environmental evidence to construct the first global benchmark diet capable of sustaining health and protecting the planet, but it did not assess dietary affordability. We used food price and household income data to estimate affordability of EAT–Lancet benchmark diets, as a first step to guiding interventions to improve diets around the world.
Different cooking styles enhance antioxidant properties and carotenoids of biofortified pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch) genotypes
Moreira, Lara de Azevedo Sarmet; Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; Cardoso, Flávio da Silva e Souza Neves; Ortiz, Gisela Maria Dellamora; Finco, Fernanda Dias Bartolomeu Abadio; Carvalho, José Luiz Viana de . Article in press

Abstract | View

Biofortification is an important technique where the nutritional quality of food crops is enriched through the increase of nutrient content. Provitamin A deficiency is still a public health concern mainly in developing countries. Since beta-carotene is a vitamin A precursor, the increase of this compound in foods through biofortification is a manner to reach people under hidden hunger condition. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different cooking styles on carotenoids content and antioxidant activity of two different genotypes of biofortified Cucurbita moschata. In the present study, biofortified pumpkins submitted to different cooking conditions were assessed for antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid systems and have polyphenols and carotenoids content compared. The cooking style affected the antioxidant activity. Pumpkins from genotype 1 showed high levels of carotenoids, α-carotene and all-E-β-carotene compared to samples from genotype 2. There was an increase of all carotenoids in both cooked pumpkins, and steam cooking showed the highest retention percentages. Steam cooking presented a higher percentage of carotenoid retention. Pumpkin consumption in developing countries, especially in the Northeast Brazil may be promoted to combat vitamin A deficiency.
Willingness to pay of Nigerian poultry producers and feed millers for aflatoxin‐safe maize
Johnson, Andrew M.; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Ayedun, Bamikole; Fulton, Joan R.; Widmar, Nicole J. Olynk; Adebowale, Akande; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit. Article in press

Abstract | View

Dietary aflatoxin exposure is a widespread problem in the developing world and causes severe negative health consequences to humans and livestock animals. A new biological control product, called Aflasafe, has been introduced in Nigeria to mitigate aflatoxin contamination of maize in the field and in storage. No known prior work has estimated how much African agribusinesses using maize for animal feed will pay for aflatoxin‐safe maize. This study measured the levels of Aflasafe awareness, surveyed current aflatoxin management practices, and estimated, using choice experiments, willingness to pay (WTP) for aflatoxin‐safe maize by Nigerian poultry producers and feed millers. Data was gathered from 272 orally administered surveys, which included discrete choice experiments examining maize purchasing decisions. Results suggest that the proportion of enterprises that were aware of aflatoxin was found to vary across states. Two latent classes of Nigerian poultry producers and feed millers were identified that were willing to pay average premiums of 4.9% and 30.9%, respectively for maize with 10 parts per billion (ppb) aflatoxin concentration relative to maize with 20 ppb aflatoxin concentration. Both latent classes were, on average, willing to pay larger premiums for maize with 4 ppb aflatoxin concentration. There was evidence that latent class membership, and hence WTP, varied based on awareness of aflatoxin and across geographies.
Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli carriage in sympatric humans and livestock in a rapidly urbanising city
Muloi, Dishon; Kiiru, John; Ward, Melissa J.; Hassell, James M.; Bettridge, Judy M.. Article in press

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There are substantial limitations in our understanding of the distribution of antibiotic resistance (AMR) in humans and livestock in developing countries. Here, we present the results of an epidemiological study examining patterns of AMR in Escherichia coli isolates circulating in sympatric human (n=321) and livestock (n=633) samples from 99 households across Nairobi, Kenya. E. coli isolates were tested for susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial drugs representing 9 antibiotic classes. We detected high rates of AMR, with 47.6% and 21.1% of isolates displaying resistance to ≥ 3 and ≥5 antibiotic classes respectively. Human isolates showed higher levels of resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, aminoglycosides and penicillins compared to livestock (p<0.01), while poultry isolates were more resistant to tetracyclines (p=0.01) compared to humans. The most common co-resistant phenotype observed was to tetracyclines, streptomycin and trimethoprim (30.5%). At the household level, AMR carriage in humans was associated with human density (p<0.01) and the presence of livestock manure (p=0.03), but livestock keeping on its own had no influence on human AMR carriage (p>0.05). Our findings revealed a high prevalence of AMR E. coli circulating in healthy humans and livestock in Nairobi, with no evidence to suggest that keeping livestock, when treated as a single risk factor significantly contributed to the burden of AMR in humans, although the presence of livestock waste was significant. These results provide an understanding of the broader epidemiology of AMR in complex, and interconnected urban environments.
The relative caloric prices of healthy and unhealthy foods differ systematically across income levels and continents
Headey, Derek D.; Alderman, Harold. Article in Press

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Relative prices of healthy/unhealthy foods have been implicated in the obesity epidemic, but never extensively quantified across countries or empirically linked to undernutrition.
Leveraging an implementation–research partnership to improve effectiveness of nutrition-sensitive programs at the World Food Programme
Olney, Deanna K.; Marshall, Quinn; Honton, Geraldine; Ogden, Kathryn; Hambayi, Mutinta; Piccini, Sarah; Go, Ara; Gelli, Aulo; Bliznashka, Lilia. Article in Press