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Risk of acute respiratory infection from crop burning in India: Estimating disease burden and economic welfare from satellite and national health survey data for 250 000 persons
Chakrabarti, Suman; Khan, Mohammed Tajuddin; Kishore, Avinash; Roy, Devesh; Scott, Samuel. Article in press

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Respiratory infections are among the leading causes of death and disability globally. Respirable aerosol particles released by agricultural crop-residue burning (ACRB), practised by farmers in all global regions, are potentially harmful to human health. Our objective was to estimate the health and economic costs of ACRB in northern India. The primary outcome was acute respiratory infection (ARI) from India’s fourth District Level Health Survey (DLHS-4). DLHS-4 data were merged with Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data on fire occurrence. Mutually adjusted generalized linear models were used to generate risk ratios for risk factors of ARI. Overall disease burden due to ACRB was estimated in terms of disability-adjusted life years.
Poultry husbandry, WASH practices and child anthropometry in rural Burkina Faso
Gelli, Aulo; Headey, Derek D.; Becquey, Elodie; Ganaba, Rasmane; Huybregts, Lieven; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye; Santacroce, Marco; Verhoef, Hans. Article in press

A school meals program implemented at scale in Ghana increases height-for-age during midchildhood in girls and in children from poor households: A cluster randomized trial
Gelli, Aulo; Aurino, Elisabetta; Folson, Gloria; Arhinful, Daniel K.; Adamba, Clement; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Alderman, Harold. Article in press

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Attention to nutrition during all phases of child and adolescent development is necessary to ensure healthy physical growth and to protect investments made earlier in life. Leveraging school meals programs as platforms to scale-up nutrition interventions is relevant as programs function in nearly every country in the world.
How do fruit and vegetable markets operate in rural India? A qualitative study of the impact of supply and demand on nutrition security
Kehoe, Sarah H.; Dhurde, Varsha; Bhaise, Shilpa; Kale, Rashmi; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Gelli, Aulo. Article in press

Behavior change interventions delivered through interpersonal communication, agricultural activities, community mobilization, and mass media increase complementary feeding practices and reduce child stunting in Ethiopia
Kim, Sunny S.; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Yohannes, Yisehac; Abebe, Yewelsew; Tharaney, Manisha; Drummond, Elizabeth; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Menon, Purnima. Article in press

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Appropriate infant and young child feeding practices are critical for optimal child growth and development, but in Ethiopia, complementary feeding (CF) practices are very poor. Alive & Thrive (A&T) provided intensive behavior change interventions through 4 platforms: interpersonal communication (IPC), nutrition-sensitive agricultural activities (AG), community mobilization (CM), and mass media (MM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of A&T intensive compared with nonintensive interventions (standard nutrition counseling and agricultural extension service and less intensive CM and MM) on CF practices and knowledge and child anthropometric outcomes.
The cost of improving nutritional outcomes through food‐assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programs in Burundi and Guatemala
Heckert, Jessica; Leroy, Jef L.; Olney, Deanna K.; Ritcher, Susan; Iruhiriye, Elyse; Ruel, Marie T.. Article in press

A multisectoral food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition program targeted to women and children in the first 1000 days increases attainment of language and motor milestones among young Burundian children
Olney, Deanna K.; Leroy, Jef L.; Bliznashka, Lilia; Ruel, Marie T.. Article in press

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Child development is affected by multiple factors throughout pregnancy and childhood. Multisectoral programs addressing these factors may improve children's development.
Poverty reduction effects of agricultural technology adoption: the case of improved cassava varieties in Nigeria
Assfaw Wossen, T.; Alene, A.; Abdoulaye, T.; Feleke, S.; Rabbi, I.Y.; Manyong, V.. Article in press

Using economic and social data to improve veterinary vaccine development: Learning lessons from human vaccinology
Thomas, Lian F.; Bellet, Camille; Rushton, Jonathan. Article in press

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The drivers of vaccine development are many and varied. They include, for example, recognition of the burden of a vaccine-targeted disease, prioritisation of the multiple problems associated with a disease, consideration of the differing socio-economic situations under which vaccines are used, the influence of advocacy groups, and assessment of the feasibility of large-scale vaccine manufacture and distribution. In the field of human health, data-driven development of vaccines is becoming increasingly common through the availability of reliable information on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and stringent evaluations of vaccination programmes utilising empirical data on costing and effectiveness, and standardised cost-effectiveness thresholds. The data generated from such analyses allow policymakers, implementing partners, industries and researchers to make decisions based on the best, and most contextually relevant, available evidence. In this paper, we wish to explore the current use of economic and social data for the development of veterinary vaccines. Through comparison with the development of human vaccines, we will look for opportunities in animal health sciences to better integrate socio-economic data and analyses into the process of veterinary vaccine selection, development, and field implementation. We believe that more robust animal health impact assessments could add value to veterinary vaccine development by improving resource allocation and animal disease management.
Local partial least squares based on global PLS scores
Shen, Guanghui; Lesnoff, Matthieu; Baeten, Vincent; Dardenne, Pierre; Davrieux, Fabrice. Article in press

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A local‐based method for near‐infrared spectroscopy predictions, the local partial least squares regression on global PLS scores (LPLS‐S), is proposed in this work and compared with the usual local PLS (LPLS) regression approach. LPLS‐S is based on the idea of replacing the original spectra with a global PLS score matrix before using the usual LPLS. This is done with the aim of increasing the speed of the calculations, which can be an important parameter for online applications in particular, especially when implemented on large databases. In this study, the performance of the two local approaches was compared in terms of efficiency and speed. It could be concluded that the root‐mean‐square error of prediction of LPLS and LPLS‐S were 1.1962 and 1.1602, respectively, but the calculation speed for LPLS‐S was more than 20 times faster than for the LPLS algorithm.
Genetic mapping of QTL for agronomic traits and grain mineral elements in rice
Descalsota-Empleo, Gwen Iris; Amparado, Amery; Inabangan-Asilo, Mary Ann; Tesoro, Frances; Stangoulis, James. Article in press

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Malnutrition is one of the prevailing health problems worldwide, affecting a large proportion of the populations in rice-consuming countries. Breeding rice varieties with increased concentrations of elements in the grain is considered the most cost-effective approach to alleviate malnutrition. Development of molecular markers for high grain concentrations of essential elements, particularly Zn, for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS) can hasten breeding efforts to develop rice varieties with nutrient-dense grain. We performed QTL mapping for four agronomic traits: days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of tillers, grain yield, and 13 grain elements: As, B, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, and Zn, in two doubled-haploid populations derived from the crosses IR64 × IR69428 and BR29 × IR75862. These populations were phenotyped during 2015DS and 2015WS at IRRI, Los Baños, The Philippines, and genotyped them with a 6 K SNP chip. Inclusive composite interval mapping revealed 15 QTL for agronomic traits and 50 QTL for grain element concentration. Of these, eight QTL showed phenotypic variance of >25% and 11 QTL were consistent across seasons. There were seven QTL co-localization regions containing QTL for more than two traits. Twenty five epistatic interactions were detected for two agronomic traits and seven mineral elements. Several DH lines with high Fe and Zn in polished rice were identified. These lines can be used as donors for breeding high-Zn rice varieties. Some of the major QTL can be further validated and used in MAS to improve the concentrations of nutritive elements in rice grain.
Advocacy coalitions and the transfer of nutrition policy to Zambia
Harris, Jody. Article in press

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Stunted growth in children and multisectoral action to address it are dominant ideas in the international nutrition community today, and this study finds that these ideas are increasingly evident over time in nutrition policy in Zambia, with stunting largely displacing other framings of nutrition. This study is based on key informant interviews (70 interviews with 61 interviewees), policy document review, and social network mapping, with iterative data collection and analysis taking place over 6 years (2011–2016). Analysis was based on two established political science theories: policy transfer theory and the Advocacy Coalition Framework. Policy changes in Zambia are shown to result from the international community’s nutrition agenda, transferred to national policy through the normative promotion of certain ways of understanding the issue of malnutrition, largely propagated through advocacy, technical assistance and funding. With its focus on multisectoral action to reduce stunting, the recent nutrition policy narrative impinges directly on an existing food security narrative as it attempts to alter agriculture policy away from maize reliance. The nutrition policy sub-system in Zambia is therefore split between an international coalition promoting action on child stunting, and a national coalition focused on food security and hunger, with implications for both sides on progressing a coherent policy agenda. This study finds that it is possible to understand policy processes for nutrition more fully than has so far been achieved in much nutrition literature through the application of multiple political science theories. These theories allow the generalization of findings from this case study to assess their relevance in other contexts: the study ultimately is about the transfer of policy being explained by the presence of advocacy coalitions and their different beliefs, resources and power, and these concepts can be investigated wherever the nutrition system reaches down from international to national level.
Different cooking styles enhance antioxidant properties and carotenoids of biofortified pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch) genotypes
Moreira, Lara de Azevedo Sarmet; Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; Cardoso, Flávio da Silva e Souza Neves; Ortiz, Gisela Maria Dellamora; Finco, Fernanda Dias Bartolomeu Abadio; Carvalho, José Luiz Viana de . Article in press

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Biofortification is an important technique where the nutritional quality of food crops is enriched through the increase of nutrient content. Provitamin A deficiency is still a public health concern mainly in developing countries. Since beta-carotene is a vitamin A precursor, the increase of this compound in foods through biofortification is a manner to reach people under hidden hunger condition. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different cooking styles on carotenoids content and antioxidant activity of two different genotypes of biofortified Cucurbita moschata. In the present study, biofortified pumpkins submitted to different cooking conditions were assessed for antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid systems and have polyphenols and carotenoids content compared. The cooking style affected the antioxidant activity. Pumpkins from genotype 1 showed high levels of carotenoids, α-carotene and all-E-β-carotene compared to samples from genotype 2. There was an increase of all carotenoids in both cooked pumpkins, and steam cooking showed the highest retention percentages. Steam cooking presented a higher percentage of carotenoid retention. Pumpkin consumption in developing countries, especially in the Northeast Brazil may be promoted to combat vitamin A deficiency.
Women’s empowerment in agriculture: Lessons from qualitative research
Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Rubin, Deborah; Elias, Marlène; Mulema, Annet Abenakyo; Myers, Emily. Washington, DC 2019

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There is growing recognition of the importance of women’s empowerment in its own right and for a range of development outcomes, but less understanding of what empowerment means to rural women and men. The challenge of measuring empowerment, particularly across cultures and contexts, is also garnering attention. This paper synthesizes qualitative research conducted conjointly with quantitative surveys, working with eight agricultural development projects in eight countries, to develop a project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI). The qualitative research sought to identify emic meanings of “empowerment,” validate the domains and indicators of the quantitative index, provide greater understanding of the context of each project and of strategies for facilitating empowerment, and test a methodology for integrating emic perspectives of empowerment with standardized etic measures that allow for comparability across contexts.
Development of the project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI)
Malapit, Hazel J.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Seymour, Gregory; Martinez, Elena M.; Heckert, Jessica; Rubin, Deborah; Vaz, Ana; Yount, Kathryn M.. Washington, DC 2019

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In this paper, the authors describe the adaptation and validation of a project-level WEAI (or pro-WEAI) that agricultural development projects can use to identify key areas of women’s (and men’s) disempowerment, design appropriate strategies to address identified deficiencies, and monitor project outcomes related to women’s empowerment. The 12 pro-WEAI indicators are mapped to three domains: intrinsic agency (power within), instrumental agency (power to), and collective agency (power with). A gender parity index compares the empowerment scores of men and women in the same household. The authors describe the development of pro-WEAI, including: (1) pro-WEAI’s distinctiveness from other versions of the WEAI; (2) the process of piloting pro-WEAI in 13 agricultural development projects during the Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project, phase 2 (GAAP2); (3) analysis of quantitative data from the GAAP2 projects, including intrahousehold patterns of empowerment; and (4) a summary of the findings from the qualitative work exploring concepts of women’s empowerment in the project sites. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned from pro-WEAI and possibilities for further development of empowerment metrics.
Accelerating the end of hunger and malnutrition: A global event: Synopsis
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington, DC 2019

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The world faces a fast-approaching due date: 2030 is the year by which 193 countries have committed themselves to ending hunger and malnutrition as part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This commitment is supported by the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016–2025), designed to promote the achievement of SDG2—a necessary condition for most other SDGs—and the Compact2025 initiative, which was established to use data, research-based evidence, best practices, and South-South learning to accelerate progress in ending hunger and malnutrition. These efforts, however, represent only the first step along the path toward achieving a world free of hunger and malnutrition. Success depends on following up commitments with concerted actions that produce measurable and sustainable results. So far, the evidence shows that the world is moving far too slowly along this path. Despite the political will expressed in the SDGs, hunger persists, and malnutrition is climbing. These realities—and the conviction that the world could move faster—were the impetus and the backdrop for an international three-day conference—organized by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)—in Bangkok in November 2018. At the conference, more than 600 distinguished decisionmakers, practitioners, and other stakeholders—from across governments, NGOs, civil society, research organizations, and the private sector— gathered to discuss how to speed up progress. In a wide-ranging set of keynote addresses, panel discussions, and side events, they shared evidence and lessons learned from around the world on transforming food systems to reduce hunger and malnutrition. They explored opportunities for scaling up successful actions and innovations that can disrupt business-as-usual to build momentum and accelerate progress.
IFPRI in Africa [January 2019]
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington, DC 2019

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IFPRI IN AFRICA: For over 40 years, IFPRI has worked with partners in Africa at the country, regional, and continental levels to provide cuttingedge, policy-relevant research on food and nutrition security for policy makers, development partners, and stakeholders. Sharing this research and engaging through capacity building and dialogue informs effective policies, programs, and investments to help ensure that all people have access to safe, sufficient, nutritious, and sustainably grown food.
Measurement properties of the Project-Level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index
Yount, Kathryn M.; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Maxwell, Lauren; Heckert, Jessica; Martinez, Elena M.; Seymour, Gregory. Washington, DC 2019

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Given the need for valid measures of women’s empowerment to monitor SDG5 and design advantages of pro-WEAI, an assessment of its measurement properties is warranted. This paper has three aims: 1) to assess in two GAAP2 projects the measurement properties of survey question (item) sets used to compute pro-WEAI indicators, 2) to offer guidance, based on study findings, for questionnaire revisions to shorten the full pro-WEAI to improve it as a measure for women’s empowerment in agricultural development programs, and 3) to make a call for a validated ‘short form’1 version of pro-WEAI and improved measures of women’s collective agency.
Adding a nutrition behavior change communication component to an early childhood development intervention in Malawi: A cluster randomized trial
Gelli, Aulo; Gladstone, Melissa; Twalibu, Aisha; Nnensa, Theresa; Kariger, Patricia; Alderman, Harold. Washington, DC 2019

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The Nutrition Embedded Evaluation Program Impact Evaluation (NEEP-IE) cluster randomized control trial (CRCT) aimed to assess the effectiveness of implementing an agriculture and nutritional intervention through preschools, known as community-based child care centres (CBCCs) in Malawi (6). This included; activities to promote nutritious food production and consumption, promotion of optimal feeding and caring practices and engagement with parents in pre-school meal planning and preparation. The NEEP-IE trial has demonstrated that CBCCs can be an effective platform to scale-up an integrated agriculture and nutrition intervention, and improve food production diversity, maternal knowledge, nutrition practices at household level and diets of pre-schoolers and their younger siblings, as well as improve linear growth in younger siblings aged 6-24m (7). This study presents the impact results of the NEEP-IE trial focusing on child development outcomes of pre-school children during a 12m intervention period.